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That number expands to about during the race itself, not including contractors employed to move barriers, erect stages, signpost the route and other work.
The oldest and main competition in the Tour de France is known as the "general classification", for which the yellow jersey is awarded: The oldest and most sought after classification in the Tour de France is the general classification.
If a rider is leading more than one classification that awards a jersey, he wears the yellow one, since the general classification is the most important one in the race.
The leader in the first Tour de France was awarded a green armband. Each team brings multiple yellow jerseys in advance of the Tour in case one of their riders becomes the overall leader of the race.
Riders usually try to make the extra effort to keep the jersey for as long as possible in order to get more publicity for the team and its sponsors.
Eddy Merckx has worn the yellow jersey for 96 stages, which is more than any other rider in the history of the Tour de France.
Four riders have won the general classification five times in their career: The mountains classification is the second oldest jersey awarding classification in the Tour de France.
The mountains classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition and was first won by Vicente Trueba.
Climbs are classified according to the steepness and length of that particular hill, with more points available for harder climbs.
The classification was preceded by the meilleur grimpeur English: The classification awarded no jersey to the leader until the Tour de France , when the organizers decided to award a distinctive white jersey with red dots to the leader.
At the end of the Tour, the rider holding the most climbing points wins the classification. Some riders may race with the aim of winning this particular competition, while others who gain points early on may shift their focus to the classification during the race.
The Tour has five categories for ranking the mountains the race covers. During his career Richard Virenque won the mountains classification a record seven times.
The point distribution for the mountains is as follows: The points classification is the third oldest of the currently awarded jersey classifications.
The classification was added to draw the participation of the sprinters as well as celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Tour. Points are given to the first 15 riders to finish a stage, with an additional set of points given to the first 15 riders to cross a pre-determined 'sprint' point during the route of each stage.
The point classification leader green jersey is worn by the rider who at the start of each stage, has the greatest number of points.
In the first years, the cyclist received penalty points for not finishing with a high place, so the cyclist with the fewest points was awarded the green jersey.
From on, the system was changed so the cyclists were awarded points for high place finishes with first place getting the most points, and lower placings getting successively fewer points , so the cyclist with the most points was awarded the green jersey.
The number of points awarded varies depending on the type of stage, with flat stages awarding the most points at the finish and time trials and high mountain stages awarding the fewest points at the finish.
The winner of the classification is the rider with the most points at the end of the Tour. In case of a tie, the leader is determined by the number of stage wins, then the number of intermediate sprint victories, and finally, the rider's standing in the general classification.
The classification has been won a record six times by Erik Zabel and Peter Sagan. In the jersey was changed to red to please the sponsor.
For almost 25 years the classification was sponsored by Pari Mutuel Urbain, a state betting company. As of , the points awarded stands as: The leader of the classification is determined the same way as the general classification, with the riders' times being added up after each stage and the eligible rider with lowest aggregate time is dubbed the leader.
The Young rider classification is restricted to the riders that are under the age of Originally the classification was restricted to neo-professionals — riders that are in their first three years of professional racing — until In , the organizers made it so that only first time riders were eligible for the classification.
In , the organizers changed the rules of the classification to what they are today. This classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition , with Francesco Moser being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall.
The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification, although this was not done between and Two riders have won the young rider classification three times in their respective careers: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck.
The most combative rider wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white next day. An award goes to the most aggressive rider throughout the Tour.
Already in a sort of combativity award was offered, when Sports Populaires and L'Education Physique created Le Prix du Courage , francs and a silver gilt medal for "the rider having finished the course, even if unplaced, who is particularly distinguished for the energy he has used.
It was initially not awarded every year, but since it has been given annually. Eddy Merckx has the most wins 4 for the overall award. The team classification is assessed by adding the time of each team's best three riders each day.
The competition does not have its own jersey but since the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow.
Until , the leading team would wear yellow caps. As of , the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets. There has been an intermediate sprints classification , which from awarded a red jersey  for points awarded to the first three to pass intermediate points during the stage.
These sprints also scored points towards the points classification and bonuses towards the general classification. The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in ,  but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, until , time bonuses for the general classification.
From there was a combination classification ,  scored on a points system based on standings in the general, points and mountains classifications.
The design was originally white, then a patchwork with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was also abolished in The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge red lantern, as in the red light at the back of a vehicle so it can be seen in the dark and in past years sometimes carried a small red light beneath his saddle.
Such was sympathy that he could command higher fees in the races that previously followed the Tour. In and the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing.
Prize money has always been awarded. From 20, francs the first year,  prize money has increased each year, although from to the first prize was an apartment offered by a race sponsor.
The first prize in was a car, a studio-apartment, a work of art, and , francs in cash. Prizes only in cash returned in Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race.
The Souvenir Henri Desgrange , in memory of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands,  or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour.
A similar award, the Souvenir Jacques Goddet , is made at the summit of the Col du Tourmalet , at the memorial to Jacques Goddet , Desgrange's successor.
The Tour directors categorise mass-stage starts into 'flat', 'hilly', or 'mountain'. The first prologue was in The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage.
This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied. But in , Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the second lead held by Stephen Roche.
He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour. In modern times, there tends to be a gentlemen's agreement: In the last stage was a time trial.
Greg LeMond overtook Laurent Fignon to win by eight seconds, the closest margin in the Tour's history. The climb of Alpe d'Huez has become one of the more noted mountain stages.
During the Tour de France it was the scene of a Riders complained of abusive spectators who threatened their progress up the climb.
Another notable mountain stage frequently featured climbs the Col du Tourmalet , the most visited mountain in the history of the Tour.
Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Alps. The Tour de France stage to Galibier marked the th anniversary of the mountain in the Tour and also boasted the highest finish altitude ever: To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town.
The race may start with a prologue too short to go between towns in which case the start of the next day's racing, which would be considered stage 1, would usually be in the same town.
In director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice.
With the switch to the use of national teams in , the costs of accommodating riders fell to the organizers instead of the sponsors and Henri Desgrange raised the money by allowing advertisers to precede the race.
The procession of often colourfully decorated trucks and cars became known as the publicity caravan. It formalised an existing situation, companies having started to follow the race.
The first to sign to precede the Tour was the chocolate company, Menier , one of those who had followed the race.
Preceding the race was more attractive to advertisers because spectators gathered by the road long before the race or could be attracted from their houses.
Advertisers following the race found that many who had watched the race had already gone home. Menier handed out tons of chocolate in that first year of preceding the race, as well as , policemen's hats printed with the company's name.
The success led to the caravan's existence being formalised the following year. The caravan was at its height between and the mids, before television and especially television advertising was established in France.
Advertisers competed to attract public attention. The writer Pierre Bost [n 8] lamented: It bellows, it plays ugly music, it's sad, it's ugly, it smells of vulgarity and money.
On top of that come the more considerable costs of the commercial samples that are thrown to the crowd and the cost of accommodating the drivers and the staff—frequently students—who throw them.
The number of items has been estimated at 11 million, each person in the procession giving out 3, to 5, items a day. Together, they weighed 32 tonnes 31 long tons; 35 short tons.
Numbers vary but there are normally around vehicles each year. Their order on the road is established by contract, the leading vehicles belonging to the largest sponsors.
The procession sets off two hours before the start and then regroups to precede the riders by an hour and a half. Vehicles travel in groups of five.
Their position is logged by GPS and from an aircraft and organised on the road by the caravan director—Jean-Pierre Lachaud [n 9] —an assistant, three motorcyclists, two radio technicians, and a breakdown and medical crew.
The first three Tours from — stayed within France. No teams from Italy, Germany, or Spain rode in because of tensions preceding the Second World War after German assistance to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War it was widely expected Spain would join Germany in a European war, though this did not come to pass.
Henri Desgrange planned a Tour for , after war had started but before France had been invaded. The route, approved by military authorities, included a route along the Maginot Line.
The first German team after the war was in , although individual Germans had ridden in mixed teams. The Tour has since started in Germany four times: Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned.
It would be difficult to find accommodation for 4, people, he said. Our movement, which is nationalist and in favour of self-government, would be delighted if the Tour came to Corsica.
Most stages are in mainland France, although since the mids it has become common to visit nearby countries: The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, outside France: The Tour was first followed only by journalists from L'Auto , the organisers.
The race was founded to increase sales of a floundering newspaper and its editor, Desgrange, saw no reason to allow rival publications to profit.
The first time papers other than L'Auto were allowed was , when 15 press cars were allowed for regional and foreign reporters.
The Tour was shown first on cinema newsreels a day or more after the event. They used telephone lines. In they broadcast the sound of riders crossing the col d'Aubisque in the Pyrenees on 12 July, using a recording machine and transmitting the sound later.
The first television pictures were shown a day after a stage. The national TV channel used two 16mm cameras, a Jeep, and a motorbike.
Film was flown or taken by train to Paris. It was edited there and shown the following day. The first live broadcast, and the second of any sport in France, was the finish at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 25 July The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July Proposals to cover the whole race were abandoned in after objections from regional newspapers whose editors feared the competition.
In the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television for the first time,  and in helicopters were first used for the television coverage.
The leading television commentator in France was a former rider, Robert Chapatte. At first he was the only commentator. He was joined in following seasons by an analyst for the mountain stages and by a commentator following the competitors by motorcycle.
Competition between channels raised the broadcasting fees paid to the organisers from 1. The two largest channels to stay in public ownership, Antenne 2 and FR3 , combined to offer more coverage than its private rival, TF1.
The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world.
The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras.
Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening.
Coverage typically starts with a survey of the day's route, interviews along the road, discussions of the difficulties and tactics ahead, and a minute archive feature.
The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.
Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave.
The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. The combination of unprecedented rigorous doping controls and almost no positive tests helped restore fans' confidence in the Tour de France.
This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event. The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe.
Millions  line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view. Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT.
The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France,  the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.
There had already been a car race called the Tour de France but it was the publicity behind the cycling race, and Desgrange's drive to educate and improve the population,  that inspired the French to know more of their country.
Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.
It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage. A look at each stage of the Tour:.
Hard crashes and bloodied riders are nothing new at the Tour de France. But for American Lawson Craddock, the push to ride on despite a fractured shoulder goes beyond his team and himself.
It's time for adjustments as four-time Tour de France winner Chris Froome prevailed in a month legal wrangle over the allowable amount of asthma medication.
Will a Colombian ever win the Tour de France? With the gusher of talent coming out of this cycling-mad country, the answer is simple: Read En Espanol Ford: Famed British sprinter Mark Cavendish, who endured tough crashes in the past year and a half, has set his sights on 35 career stage wins at the Tour de France.
Among them were Greg Van Avermaet, who, as he himself predicted, began to slide out of the yellow jersey. And then came the GC damage. It was the same for Bauke Mollema, who has been struggling with back pain.
Further up, Rafal Majka showed more signs of weakness. Half-way up the climb, Valverde made the first real attack of the Tour de France.
He quickly opened up a lead of half a minute as Sky were forced back onto the front, and picked off the flailing members of the early break. One of them, of course, was Soler, who got straight to work for his leader.
Valverde and Soler, 3: After a short descent, the road reared uphill again to the Cormet de Roselend — a 5. Meanwhile, Valverde was two minutes up the road and now in the virtual yellow jersey, but Bahrain's forcing would shave half a minute off the gap by the top.
In the break, once again it was Fortuneo taking it up, Moinard with Barguil in his wheel ready to help himself to more points at the top. At the crest, there were 13 left out front: Valverde and Soler topped the climb just over two minutes in arrears, but their lead over the GC group had been paired back to a minute.
A long, kilometre descent followed, used by Tom Dumoulin for a speculative attack, with teammate Kragh Andersen for company. By the foot of the final climb, the situation was thus: When Kragh Andersen went, Dumoulin started pulling and turned round to usher Valverde through, but the Spaniard refused, putting the pressure on Dumoulin with the excuse that he had teammates to fall back on behind.
Up front, Moinard pulled over and almost ground to a halt, leaving Barguil to fight mano a mano with Caruso, Nieve, and Valgren, though the latter was done for after seven kilometres.
The Cofidis duo of Herrada and Navarro led the chase and produced a remarkable effort to bridge across to the three remaining leaders with 9km to go.
As soon as they'd made the junction, however, Nieve attacked. He was clearly all-in for a stage win and not a bridge for Yates, as the attack coincided with the Mitchelton leader losing contact with the GC group.
Nieve's move stuck, and spelled an end to Barguil's hopes, with Caruso the chief chaser followed by the Cofidis duo. Meanwhile, Dumoulin had too much for Valverde and dropped the Spaniard, who fell back to the peloton and then out of the back of it, his GC hopes and Movistar's 'three cards' approach taking a major hit.
By now Castroviejo had pulled over and Kwiatkowski was doing the damage for Sky, and following Yates and Valverde out of the back door were Ilnur Zakarin, Jakob Fuglsang, and white jersey Pierre Latour.
With six kilometres to go, Nieve had one minute on the advancing Dumoulin, with the peloton at 1: Kwiatkowski dug in and caused enough damage to take Egan Bernal — Sky's next in line to pull — out of the equation.
With just over 6km to go, Thomas made his move. Froome pulled over and waved the others through, but they began to call his bluff.
Bardet cracked first, dragging Froome with him and establishing a selection with Quintana, Nibali, Roglic, and Martin, who would dangle off the back.
By this point, Landa and Zakarin had lost contact, and Yates a few kilomtres before that. Froome then made an attack of his own.